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Connexin and pannexin hemichannels in brain glial cells: Properties, pharmacology, and roles

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Autor Giaume C.
Autor Leybaert L.
Autor Naus C.C.
Autor Saez J.C.
Fecha Ingreso 2014-04-05T00:12:47Z
Fecha Disponible 2014-04-05T00:12:47Z
Fecha en Repositorio 2014-04-04
dc.identifier 10.3389/fphar.2013.00088
dc.description.abstract Functional interaction between neurons and glia is an exciting field that has expanded tremendously during the past decade. Such partnership has multiple impacts on neuronal activity and survival. Indeed, numerous findings indicate that glial cells interact tightly with neurons in physiological as well as pathological situations. One typical feature of glial cells is their high expression level of gap junction protein subunits, named connexins (Cxs), thus the membrane channels they form may contribute to neuroglial interaction that impacts neuronal activity and survival. While the participation of gap junction channels in neuroglial interactions has been regularly reviewed in the past, the other channel function of Cxs, i.e., hemichannels located at the cell surface, has only recently received attention. Gap junction channels provide the basis for a unique direct cell-to-cell communication, whereas Cx hemichannels allow the exchange of ions and signaling molecules between the cytoplasm and the extracellular medium, thus supporting autocrine and paracrine communication through a process referred to as "gliotransmission," as well as uptake and release of metabolites. More recently, another family of proteins, termed pannexins (Panxs), has been identified. These proteins share similar membrane topology but no sequence homology with Cxs. They form multimeric membrane channels with pharmacology somewhat overlapping with that of Cx hemichannels. Such duality has led to several controversies in the literature concerning the identification of the molecular channel constituents (Cxs versus Panxs) in glia. In the present review, we update and discuss the knowledge of Cx hemichannels and Panx channels in glia, their properties and pharmacology, as well as the understanding of their contribution to neuroglial interactions in brain health and disease. © 2013 Giaume, Giaume, Naus and Sáez. en_US
dc.source Frontiers in Pharmacology
Link Descarga dc.source.uri
Title dc.title Connexin and pannexin hemichannels in brain glial cells: Properties, pharmacology, and roles en_US
Tipo dc.type Review
dc.description.keywords calcium channel; calcium homeostasis modulator 1 ion channel; cannabinoid 1 receptor; carbenoxolone; epidermal growth factor; fibroblast growth factor; gap junction protein; glycyrrhetinic acid derivative; interleukin 1beta; membrane protein; pannexin; protein inhibitor; transient receptor potential channel; tumor necrosis factor alpha; unclassified drug; astrocyte; bioluminescence; brain blood flow; cell communication; cell differentiation; cell interaction; cell migration; cell proliferation; cell surface; enzyme kinetics; enzyme release; fluorometry; gene expression profiling; glia cell; glucose transport; high performance liquid chromatography; human; interneuron; membrane permeability; membrane structure; molecular weight; nerve cell plasticity; neurotransmission; nonhuman; oligodendroglia; protein analysis; protein conformation; protein domain; protein expression; protein function; protein localization; protein phosphorylation; protein secretion; review; sequence homology; signal transduction; synaptic transmission en_US

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